Showing posts with label animal fats. Show all posts

Lard


Lard is the rendered fat from the pig (Sus scrofa). There are numerous parts of the world where lard has been a major food fat during centuries. One of these countries is China, or parts of Europe, and until recent times the United States. Lard has been a popular fat for pastry and for frying potato chips. In the America it can still be found in these foods in spite of the inappropriate consumer activist pressure to change it with partially hydrogenated vegetable shortenings. Lard can be either a firm fat or a soft fat depending on what the pig is fed.

Lard

Lard is more or less the corresponding of tallow in its usage, except that is has more unsaturated and can become rancid if not handled properly. Usually it is about 40 percent saturated, 50 percent monounsaturated, and 10 percent polyunsaturated fatty acids. This fat should be considered as a monounsaturated fat. Lard has between 2 and 3 percent palmitoleic acid, which as noted above possesses antimicrobial capacities. Most lard is home rendered or sold in certain ethnic stores Typical fatty acid composition is 1 percent myristic acid, 25 percent palmitic acid, 3 percent palmitoleic acid, 12 percent stearic acid, 45 percent oleic acid, 10 percent linoleic acid, and less than 1 percent linolenic acid. Typical tocopherol and tocotrienol content is reported to be 12 mg/kg a-tocopherol, 7 mg/kg ү-tocopherol, and 7 mg/kg atocotrienol.
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Healthy Fats and Oils


Healthy fats and oils are the ones that don't oxidize, or that are typically consumed prior to the oxidizing process. Those fats and oils that are oxidized are either:

  • not available for use as energy or for structural purposes because they are either in a polymerized not viable form or
  • they contain toxic components.
Naturally occurring fats and oils have been always consumed. They are habitually found to be the more saturated animal and plant fats. The more readily oxidizable oils historically have usually been consumed in their original packaging in the form of seeds and plants before they have been extracted and had a possibility to form oxidized products.

Oils and fats

Fats and oils to be avoided, in addition to partially hydrogenated vegetable fats, include any rancid or overheated fats and oils that have breakdown products such as oxidized fatty acids, oxidized sterols, peroxides, acrolein, hydrocarbons, and aromatic compounds. These types of abused fats and oils are not secure. Free radicals are derived from the decomposition of unsaturated fatty acids, particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids. Ozone-induced reactive free radicals can interact with sulfhydryl groups in proteins as well as with unsaturated fatty acids and are negative to membranes. Oils, especially the polyunsaturated oils, that have been thought to be good, because they decrease serum cholesterol levels, actually proved to increase cholesterol in tissues; the reason being that the polyunsaturated fatty acids are deposited into the membranes and the body requires to put more cholesterol into these membranes to alleviate them and to preserve the melting point characteristics of the membrane.
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