Showing posts with label borrelia burgdorferi. Show all posts

Lyme Disease and Humans

Lyme

Lyme disease is probably the most common vectored disease in the world. Its causative agent is a spirochete: Borrelia burgdorferi. Borrelia normally requires both a tick host of the Ixodes genus and a warm-blooded host to complete its infectious cycle, but insects may occasionally also be vectors, transmitting Borrelia from one host to another.

Spirochetes undergo multiple changes as the ticks are biting their warm-blooded host. But these pale in comparison with the changes that occur inside a human.

Inside the Human

If left alone once inside a warm-blooded host, spirochetes move through the blood stream, reproduce slowly, produce blebs, change shape, and move into the host's organs and tissues where they give off toxins that often reduce host mobility. Reduced host mobility increases the probability that new ticks will find and bite the infected host and transfer the spirochetes to more vertebrates.

Spirochetes Release “Cluster Bombs”

Each active bacterium releases into the body thousands of infectious packages, called blebs. Although the bacteria reproduce only about once every two weeks, these blebs are produced almost continuously, are hyper infective and appear to cause most of the symptoms of LD. Blebs are a sort of smoke screen against the immune system. As immune cells and antibodies are attacking the blebs, the bacteria (hidden inside other cells) can continue to release more blebs without injury. Since blebs are not true cells, they may be destroyed without eliminating the actual bacteria.

Borrelia Attacks our Immune System
Our immune response is slowed down and even rendered ineffective by bacteria that can rapidly change their surface characteristics. Borrelia's ability to swiftly generate new combinations of surface proteins while the tick is feeding makes it important to remove I. scapularis ticks early in the feeding bout. But it is even more important to be treated as soon after infection begins as possible. If Borrelia are given time to change their surface proteins and develop other defenses against our immune systems and antibiotics, Borrelia may become able to escape our most concerted efforts to eradicate them.

Spirochetes are Shape Shifters

As if the arsenal of attack by ticks and spirochetes does not perplex the host's immune system enough, the bacteria will change their characteristics when the host marshalls defenses against the spirochetes. They seem to have programs that instruct them to:
  • Produce new forms of both surface protein groups (vlsE and Osp).
  • Change shape and discard surface proteins.
  • Move from the blood stream into body fluids.
  • Enter cells and become invisible to antibodies and killer T-cells.
  • Destroy immune system cells.
  • Hide behind the blood-brain barrier where many antibiotics cannot penetrate.
There are no fewer than three shapes of Borrelia, two of which are highly infective:
  • the spirochetal form,
  • an L-form that discards its cell wall and integrated surface proteins, and
  • a cystic form that enters cells and becomes inactive.
The infective shapes of Borrelia disrupt cell function, destroy connections between them, and eventually kill the cells. Being inactive, the cystic form is resistant to antibiotics, does not present antigens to the immune system, and escapes destruction from most medications. The few medications that are active against the cystic forms are dangerous.

Neurological Damage

Most neurological damage in the body is caused by the L-form of Borrelia. This form easily enters cells, can break into small round cells (cocci), and in the nervous system, disrupts connections (synapses), destroys neurons and their supporting tissues, and produce holes (lesions) in the brain that cannot be repaired. These changes become manifest as:
  • altered sensory perception,
  • forgetfulness,
  • muscle weakness,
  • slow or rapid heartbeat,
  • low or high blood pressure,
  • personality changes,
  • dementia – sometimes extreme,
  • “Lyme rage,”
  • and many others.
A full blown disease with these characteristics needs a multi-pronged attack to be eliminated.

steroids online in usa

read more →

Lyme Disease and Ticks

Lyme

Most people have been or know someone affected by Lyme Disease. The ticks that transmit this disease are found in all of the US, Canada, Mexico, European and most Asian countries. When they bite, they can inject the bacteria that cause Lyme disease and other diseases.

Early Symptoms of Lyme Disease

Lyme disease begins after a tick bite. This is sometimes followed by a bulls-eye rash, becoming exhausted in the middle of the day – totally incapable of continuing without collapsing in bed, flu-like symptoms that may or may not go away, or suddenly developing arthritis. Since any of these symptoms could be something else, diagnosing LD is difficult.

Diagnosis Difficulties

The bulls-eye rash is diagnostic for Lyme disease and treatment often begins with no further testing, but almost 50% of people affected have no or atypical rashes. When Lyme disease is suspected, doctors send blood samples for testing. This test looks for antibodies in response to the bacterium. If the test is positive, the standard treatment is two weeks of antibiotics. If it provides a false negative diagnosis (which it does about 40% of the time), the patient may be sent away and not properly treated for some time and require extensive treatments to cure the disease. Which antibiotics, the duration and mode of administration, and the bacterium's response to treatment vary widely.

Borrelia burgdorferi and its Effects
Borrelia burgdorferi, is a spirochete transmitted by the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis (previously called I. dammini). Once infected, spirochetes travel through the blood stream and affect many organs, often burrowing into the cells, and wreaking havoc wherever they settle: They trigger arthritis; cause heart arrhythmias, (rarely) heart attack, weaken cardiac muscle; alter sensory input, motor control, disrupt thought processes, may cause paralysis of facial muscles (Bell's palsy) and other muscle groups; trigger muscle pain (myalgia), weakness, and sometimes tetany; produce rashes – often with a bullseye appearance; and can cross the placenta, causing fetal abnormalities.

The Ticks

The tick's role in transmitting Lyme Disease was noted shortly after the identification and naming of Lyme Disease in 1977. Ticks usually hatch without internal parasites, obtaining them over a period of several days as they feed from previously infected hosts.

About 50% of black-legged ticks carry B. burgdorferi. Almost 20% carry the agent for Babesiosis or Ehrlichiosis, and half of this second group carries two of the three agents. As treatments are different, doctors often test for all three agents when a patient presents an infection after a tick bite.
Tick development includes four stages: egg, larva, nymph, and adult. As sit and wait predators, they feed only once during each stage after the egg. They climb vegetation and hold on until something knocks them off or they are carried away by an animal.

Tick Development: Three Stages

Larvae, the size of the dot in the letter “i,” usually hatch in the spring, wait low in the vegetation, and feed on small mammals or birds. Larvae molt about three months after feeding, and the nymphs climb about a foot off the ground to feed on medium or large mammals and birds that walk by. At the end of the summer, the nymph molts to the adult stage.

Most feeding adult ticks are females. Males attempt to mate shortly after molting, may not feed again, and die soon after mating. A female must feed so her eggs can develop, and can live up to a year without feeding. She only becomes sexually receptive after engorging while feeding for at least a day. After mating, she swells to ten times her already swollen size, all the time transferring bacteria to the host. See the article “Lyme Disease: Warding Off The Disease” to find out how to reduce your chances of obtaining Lyme disease.

discount steroids online

read more →

Lyme Disease – Know the Signs and Symptoms

lyme disease

Lyme disease is an illness caused by bacteria from the species called Borrelia. This bacterium can live in the stomachs of deer and mice. When a tick feeds from an infected animal, they can become carriers of this bacterium. These ticks can spread the disease to a person by biting the skin thus allowing the bacterium to enter the human body. The disease cannot be spread from person to person. (Journals.uchicago.edu “Clinical Infectious Diseases,” accessed October 6, 2016).

Symptoms of Lyme Disease

Early symptoms of Lyme disease develop within days to weeks of the initial contact. The early symptoms include headaches, fever, weakness and fatigue. The area on the skin where the bacterium enter becomes inflamed with a red, circular, non-raised rash that eventually looks like a bull’s eye target. Not all patients develop this rash and the rash, swelling and redness can resolve on its own in about a month.

Other early symptoms may include muscle and joint stiffness and swollen glands or swollen lymph nodes. According to the Centers for Disease Control, “Lyme Disease”, most cases of the disease can be eliminated if treated early with antibiotics.

If the early symptoms are not treated, the disease can worsen and lead to more serious symptoms affecting other body systems. In a few weeks to months after the initial tick bite, the infection spreads throughout the body. The joints and the nervous system can become affected.

When the disease reaches the joints and nervous system, a person can experience numbness and tingling in muscles and pain and inflammation in the knees and other large joints. Other symptoms may include a stiff neck, light-headedness, confusion, nausea and vomiting and meningitis. Lyme disease can cause anxiety and extreme depression.

As symptoms progress, the patient can have blurred vision, drooping eyelids, sensitivity to light, dysfunctional movement and loss of muscle function. They can develop facial paralysis, also called Bell’s palsy, can experience hallucinations, can have speech impairment, can have decrease in consciousness and become unconscious.

The development of chronic arthritis, usually only in one or a few joints, is a common symptom of this disease. Other late symptoms of Lyme disease can be inflammation of the heart muscle causing palpitations and abnormal heart rhythm. If a patient is not treated effectively, Lyme disease can cause heart failure and death. (Mayoclinic.com “Lyme Disease,” accessed October 6, 2016).

Prevention of Lyme Disease
There are several defense measures that help prevent Lyme disease. One of these measures is to avoid any skin exposure while in areas where ticks live and thrive. These areas include wooded areas and areas with tall grass.

Another preventive measure is to spray exposed skin and clothing with insect repellent prior to engaging in outdoor activities. Other measures include wearing long-sleeves and long pants, and wearing boots while outdoors. Some ticks are very hard to see. Wearing light-colored clothes can help detect exposure.

Pets should be examined routinely for existence of ticks. If pets who acquire ticks play in or around an area where humans play in or around, these play areas should be treated with safe but effective products that eliminate ticks. Ticks should also be removed safely and effectively from pets.

Once back indoors, clothes should be removed immediately. Skin and clothes should be examined thoroughly. The hair and scalp should also be examined closely for ticks. It is also important to properly remove ticks.

If it is necessary to remove a tick from the skin, the area should be cleaned with soap and water immediately after removal. If a person feels like they are symptomatic of Lyme disease, it is important to get diagnosed early by a physician. Early treatment of Lyme disease is the most effective way to prevent it from becoming serious. (Cdc.gov “Lyme Disease Treatment and Prognosis,” accessed October 6, 2016).

buy steroids in bulk

read more →