Showing posts with label infection. Show all posts

Risks of Tanning

tanning

No matter the season, indoor tanning remains a habitual practice for many individuals. According to the American Academy of Dermatology (AAD), around one million people in the United States tan on average each day, with 28 million tanning indoors annually. Due to the consistent increase in these numbers, many questions have been raised regarding the potential risks of this popular trend.

Skin Cancer and Tanning

The practice of indoor tanning is most often associated with young girls, with the AAD reporting that 70 percent of salon goers are females between the ages of 16 and 29. However, there is no “typical” characteristic of a tanner, as both men and women, young and old, attend salons every day. Throughout the year, there are a number of occasions that patrons use as an excuse to get a tan, including prom, weddings, vacation, graduation, senior pictures, spring break, and more.

With the increased use of tanning beds comes an increase in the research conducted. Organizations such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the World Health Organization, the Center for Disease Control, the American Medical Association, the National Cancer Institute, the Federal Trade Commission, and the AAD have all released statements and fact sheets regarding the risk of skin cancer that comes from UV radiation in the forms of melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.

Some adamant tanners choose to completely ignore the warnings that those who tan indoors before the age of 35 have a 75 percent increased chance of developing melanoma or that there is a significant increase in the risk of skin cancer for those who tan indoors more than just 10 times per year. However, it is often overlooked that the physical act of tanning may come with another set of problems.

Tanning Bed Disinfectant

In the state of Illinois, the Illinois General Assembly provides standard requirements for the sanitation of indoor tanning salons. Before providing information regarding the sanitation of the actual beds, the Tanning Facilities Code also provides specific details on the cleanliness of the restrooms, the floors, and the showers, when provided.

In regards to the cleaning of the tanning beds, the Illinois General Assembly states that all surfaces touched by clients should be sanitized after each use with a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency registered disinfectant, and that the cloth towels used for cleaning or drying must also be washed after each use with soap or detergent. However, each individual state has its own tanning facility regulations.

The problem with the mentioned requirements is that enforcement and attention to detail are not always present. Many tanning facilities are on or near college campuses, and even when not, it is often young adults who are working in or managing the salons. Although not necessarily true for everyone, this demographic tends to focus less on the cleaning portion of the job and more on the sales and commission aspect. Also, some salons do not provide the proper training, and cases have occurred where the same cleaning rag was used on more than one bed, causing the spread of sweat, germs, and bacteria from one bed to the next.

Bacteria and Infection

Although it is difficult to track where certain skin infections come from, there are many issues aside from skin cancer that can come as a result of indoor tanning. In January 2010, research was published in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology regarding the issue at hand.

During the study, researchers took a culture from one tanning bed at each of 10 top-rated salons in New York City. Although no cleaning was witnessed, at least one of the sampled beds held a sign stating that the unit had been cleaned. Out of the 10 cultures, all of them grew pathogens, including pseudomonas spp. (aeruginosa and putida), Bacillus spp., enterobacter cloacae, staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), enterococcus species, and klebsiella pneumonia.

While this was a simple study, the results still show that dirty tanning beds are something to be concerned about. Other potential risks mentioned by dermatologists include warts, human papillomavirus, herpes, and tinea versicolor. Many of these thrive in warm, damp environments, and tanning beds should not be excluded.

Although it is said that there is no “safe” tan, millions of individuals will continue to make use of indoor tanning facilities. In order to best avoid risks associated with bacteria and infections, tanning in a vertical or stand-up bed is one possible option. Also, sunless spray tans are a better alternative to beds that contain UV radiation. Regardless of the occasion, tanners should be aware of the potential risk factors and make sure to weigh options before hopping into a bed for a 10 to 20 minute fake bake.

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Augmentin

Augmentin is a combination of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium. Amoxicillin is an antibiotic from the penicillin group. It works by fighting bacteria in the body. Clavulanate potassium is similar to penicillin. Clavulanate potassium helps fight bacteria that is resistant to other antibiotics and to penicillin. Combined, these drugs form the antibiotic Augmentin, which can be used to treat a wide array of bacterial infections.
augmentin

Contraindication Information About Augmentin

Patients with a known history of allergic reactions to any form of penicillin should not take any form of Augmentin.

Augmentin is contraindicated in patients with a history of hepatic dysfunction or cholestatic jaundice that is associated with amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium.

How to Take Augmentin

Augmentin in should be taken exactly as prescribed. Follow the instructions on the prescription label. Augmentin XR (extended release) should never be crushed or chewed. The pill can be broken in half and both halves need to be taken one at a time.

Augmentin needs to be taken at evenly spaced intervals. Always take the medication for the entire time prescribed, even if symptoms get better.

This medication should be taken with a full glass of water and at the start of a meal, to help reduce stomach upset.

Side Effects of Augmentin

Always seek emergency treatment if signs of an allergic reaction occurs while taking Augmentin. Allergic reaction symptoms can include hives, difficulty breathing, and swelling of the lips, tongue, face, or throat.

Augmentin should be stopped and a physician notified if a patient experiences any of the following serious side effects:
  • easy bruising or bleeding
  • watery diarrhea or diarrhea with blood in it
  • severe tingling, numbness, pain, or muscle weakness
  • skin rash
  • pale or yellowed skin
  • dark colored urine
  • fever, confusion, or weakness
  • agitation, confusion, unusual thoughts or behavior
  • seizures
  • sore throat and headache with blistering, peeling, or red skin rash
Common side effects while taking Augmentin may include:
  • nausea or vomiting
  • mild skin rash or itching
  • white patches in the mouth or throat
  • mild diarrhea
  • gas or mild stomach pain
  • vaginal yeast infection
If any other unusual or bothersome side effect occurs, patients should notify their physician to determine if the antibiotic should be continued.

Doses and Dosage for Augmentin

Augmentin is available in 250mg, 500mg, and 875mg doses. Two 250mg pills should never be substituted for a 500mg dosage. They are not equivalent.

Adult dosage is one 500mg tablet every 12 hours or one 250mg tablet every eight hours. In severe respiratory infections, 875mg may be prescribed every 12 hours or 500mg every eight hours, may be the indicated dosage.

Pediatric patients weighing less than 40kg will be weight based. Pediatric patients weighing over 40kg are generally prescribed according to adult recommendations.

Considerations Regarding Augmentin

Augmentin, when taken as prescribed, is an effective antibiotic against many bacterial infections. Common infections treated with Augmentin include but are not limitied to pneumonia, sinus infection, urinary tract infection, skin infection, bronchitis, and ear infections. This medication needs to be taken on time and at regular intervals without missing doses and without stopping before the medicine is finished.

Due to the possibility of stomach upset, it is best to take with food at the beginning of meals. If stomach upset becomes severe or nausea and vomiting occurs and the patient is unable to keep the medication down, consult the prescribing physician.

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Antibiotics and How They Work

antibiotics

Since their development, antibiotics are the most widely prescribed drugs in the world. Ironically, the term antibiotics means "against life," but that couldn't be further from the truth. Antibiotics are used in the treatment of diseases like diphtheria and tuberculosis, but they're most frequently prescribed to fight the generous multitudes of classified infections. And what's most amazing is that only about 70 years ago, these medical maladies were killing tens of thousands of people every year.

Chronicle of the History of Antibiotics

Historical documentation cites that during World War I many soldiers died due to infections from their wounds. At that time there was only one drug used in an attempt to address infections and other war-related diseases, like dysentery and syphilis. The drug was an arsenic-based medicine called Salvarsan, but its effectiveness was not very high.

Antibiotics were discovered in 1929, decisively on accident, when the British scientist Alexander Fleming realized that a mold, Penicillium, had inadvertently found its way into a Petri dish containing bacteria. Fleming found that the mold compound halted the bacterial growth and eventually killed it. He then tested it on various other forms of bacteria and he recognized its potential, but was unable to develop it any further.

Years later in 1938, a German biochemist, Ernst Chain, and Australian pathologist, Howard Florey, began working to advance and promote Fleming's research. Two years later, in 1940 they announced the production of the first penicillin antibiotic.

Use of Antibiotics

The first person to receive antibiotic treatment was a British policeman who had severe infections of the head, face and lungs. His recovery results amazed the entire medical community, but there were not sufficient amounts of antibiotic available and the man died a month later. In 1940 the war threatened to politically convolute the production of the newly conceived penicillium, so Florey and Chain rather quietly continued their efforts. Great Britain could not afford to produce the new drug, so the United States ultimately became its country of origin and mass production.

Among the diseases antibiotics were initially successful in treating were pneumonia, diphtheria, syphilis and meningitis, but now there are a forever-growing variety antibiotics being produced. In the late 1980s, synthetic antibiotics, known as quinolones, were being introduced to treat specific new strains of infection. Since, scientific research reflect, the reason these antibiotics work so well is because bacteria cannot build a resistance to them.

How Antibiotics Work

Antibiotics work by killing off the bacteria infecting the patient's normal body function. Infections can only take a strong-hold if the bacteria that causes them is allowed to reproduce. It is the mass reproduction of bacteria that enables an infection to annihilate a human body.

Penicillin interferes with the construction of bacterial cell walls during formation, allowing the bacteria to leak out, displace and die. Other forms of antibiotics actually poison bacterial components, destroying the proteins they need to reproduce. And yet other types of the drug interfere with the genetic code necessary for the bacteria to reproduce.

The risky factor when new antibiotics are developed is ensuring they do not actually destroy the body's useful bacteria. If this happens in a patient, he is then diagnosed as having what is medically described as a secondary infection. But the most troublesome quandary of the antibiotic research and development scientist is that bacterias continually adapt, evolve and build resistance. Therefore the production of new, more effective antibiotics is an ongoing struggle.

Very often patients leave their doctors' offices feeling confused by explanations and/or complicated answers to simple questions. It does not take a medical degree to gain a basic comprehension of antibiotics and how they work, and for most people simply having a layperson's understanding is all that is needed.
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Methods to Avoid Catching Colds


As much as possible, avoid coming into close contact with infected persons, especially if they cough or sneeze. A person with a cold is very contagious: a person fills the air with fine particles of saliva or mucous which transport the virus microbe. Even if the person is cautious to wipe his nose with tissue or a handkerchief, the microbes will be transported to his hands.

And studies have shown that these viruses are transmitted through hand contact. So if you have to shake hands with somebody who has a cold, you would better wash soon after It is useless to take antibiotics: they have no effect on viruses.

Alcohol

However, there are certain substances found in alcohol which help decongest sinuses, that is why a good hot toddy can work wonders. But take care of your liver: a toddy is just as good with a little rum as with a lot. You don’t have to get drunk to get better. You don’t even have to drink it - just sniff some strong alcohol like cognac or brandy and breathe in the fumes.
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