Showing posts with label inflammation. Show all posts

Frozen Shoulder

frozen shoulder

Frozen shoulder affects only about two percent of the population but can greatly impact day to day life events such as brushing hair, opening doors or reaching up to retrieve something from a top shelf. It is most common in people between the ages of 40 and 60, and, according to the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, can also strike people with diabetes, thyroid problems, Parkinson's disease or cardiac disease.

Dr. Jennifer Solomon, a specialist in physical medicine and rehabilitation at the Hospital for Special Surgery in New York, which is well-known for its treatment of frozen shoulder, says, "It is also extremely common in perimenopausal women."

This suggests hormonal changes may cause joint stiffness associated with frozen shoulder.

The disorder often develops slowly, and in three stages.

Stage One: Pain increases with movement and is often worse at night. There is a progressive loss of motion with increasing pain. This stage lasts approximately 2 to 9 months.

Stage Two: Pain begins to diminish, and moving the arm is more comfortable. However, the range of motion is now much more limited, as much as 50 percent less than in the other arm. This stage may last 4 to 12 months.

Stage Three: The condition begins to resolve. Most patients experience a gradual restoration of motion over the next 12 to 42 months; surgery may be required to restore motion for some patients.

No one has yet to pinpoint the exact cause of frozen shoulder. However, it likely involves an underlying inflammatory process and can develop after leaving the shoulder immobile for any period of time, such as after surgery or an injury.

A medical history and physical exam, including X-rays can usually diagnose frozen shoulder. Treatment options include ibuprofen and cortisone injections. Steroids can significantly reduce inflammation and pain and increase range of motion.

Physical therapy is also often recommended, and consists of stretching or range-of-motion exercises. Therapy can be conducted by a trained and licensed therapist or in the comfort of home without supervision. Surgery is seen as a last resort should conventional methods be unsuccessful.

The recently held 75th Annual Meeting Podium Presentations by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons concluded that frozen shoulder is often misdiagnosed when the real culprit to pain and loss of motion is a tumor localized inside the bone or in the scapular region. These surgeons cautioned that a misdiagnosis can cause a significant delay in treatment. Patients should ask their physicians to consider all options.

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Toradol Pain Medicine

Toradol is commonly prescribed after surgery. It is also sold under the generic name of Ketorolac. It helps reduce hormones in your body that cause inflammation and pain. It is available as an IV additive, injection, and as a tablet form. Tablets should only be used if you have already received the injectable form first. Toradol is not indicated for mild or ongoing pain.

toradol

Important Facts Regarding Toradol

Toradol is used short-term (five days or less) due to the increased risk of serious side effects on your stomach and intestines. Serious life threatening gastrointestinal effects can occur while taking Toradol. Toradol can also increase your risk of life-threatening circulation and heart problems, such as stroke and heart attack. Risks increase with longer use of Toradol. Seek medical care immediately if you experience chest pain, weakness, slurred speech, shortness of breath, vision or balance problems, black or bloody stools, tarry stools, or if you are coughing up blood or vomit that appears to look like coffee grounds.

Reasons Not to Take Toradol

You should not take Toradol if you are allergic to ketorolac, aspirin, or other NSAIDs. People should not take Toradol if they have severe kidney disease, a closed head injury, bleeding in the brain, bleeding or blood clot disorder, stomach ulcer, history of stomach or intestinal bleeding, or if you are breast-feeding an infant. This medication should not be used on anyone under the age of 18 years old.

Administration of Toradol

Toradol should be taken exactly as prescribed. Never take larger amounts of this medicine and never take it for longer than recommended by your physician. Toradol is generally given first as an injection. If you are given a prescription for the tablet form, take the tablet with a full glass of water. Toradol taken long-term can lead to damage of your kidneys and or cause bleeding.

Side Effects of Toradol

Common side effects of Toradol can include upset stomach, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, bloating, gas, mild heartburn, stomach pain, sweating, dizziness, headache, drowsiness, and ringing in your ears.

Seek emergency care immediately if your experience an allergic reaction such as hives, swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat, and or difficulty breathing.

Contact your physician at once and stop taking Toradol if you experience chest pain, weakness, black, bloody, or tarry stools, swelling or rapid weight gain, shortness of breath, slurred speech, fever, sore throat, mouth sores, skin rash, neck stiffness, chills, increased sensitivity to light, purple spots on your skin, or seizures.

Drug Interactions with Toradol

Taking certain anti-depressant medications with Toradol can cause you to bruise and bleed easily. Inform your doctor if you are taking any blood thinners, lithium, alprazolam, thiothixene, methotrexate, diuretics, muscle relaxers, steroids, seizure medications, heart or blood pressure medicines, aspirin or other forms of NSAIDs, and ACE inhibitors. Other medications not listed may interact with this medicine. Always discuss all prescription, over-the-counter medications, supplements, and herbal medications with your physician. Serious drug interactions can occur.

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Irritable Bowel Syndrome and How to Manage Your Symptoms

How IBS is Diagnosed?

Diagnosing IBS can be a lengthy and complex process, as no actual test for IBS exists. Many disorders of the stomach or bowel often have similar systems to IBS so must therefore be ruled out before any final diagnosis is made. When a patient consults their doctor with symptoms of IBS, the doctor will often refer the patient for tests for conditions such as coeliac disease, Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Occasionally in more severe cases, the patient may even be referred for a colonoscopy, an exploratory procedure of the bowel. Only when all other possibilities are ruled out can there be a diagnosis of IBS. Any abnormality in bowel movement or stools can be a sign of IBS.

Symptoms of IBS

The main symptoms of IBS are abdominal pain, often described as colic-type pain, stomach cramps, bloating, diarrhoea, constipation, flatulence and an urgency to go to the toilet. Other symptoms can include lower back pain, nausea, headaches, tiredness, mucus in stools and feeling particularly full after eating. Symptoms can vary depending on the person. Some people may only have a few symptoms and have periods where the symptoms flare up occasionally.

In more severe cases, IBS can be debilitating for the individual and has a profound affect their daily lives. It may prevent the sufferer from being able to go to work or do anything. Frequent flatulence in public or a sudden urgency to use the toilet and not being able to make it to the toilet on time may also be present and can be extremely traumatic on the sufferer.

What Causes IBS?

The cause of IBS is unknown; however, there are many theories to what causes the condition and triggers symptoms. The most popular theory is related to diet, primarily because food consumed has a direct impact on the gastrointestinal system. Food intolerances and certain foods which has a direct effect on the digestive system may trigger symptoms of IBS. There is a theory that IBS sufferers have a colon or large intestine, that is particularly sensitive and reactive to certain foods, and also to stress.

Evidence has shown that there is a connection between IBS and stress or anxiety. Many sufferers relate symptoms to stressful events in their life. The relationship between the gut and nervous system is complex and it has been claimed by many studies that there is a part of the nervous system in the gut. A bacterial infection in the gut is another popular theory for being a cause of IBS.

How IBS can be Treated

Treatment for IBS symptoms can vary and depends on the individual. What is considered effective for one individual may not be as successful for another. There is no actual treatment for IBS, but there are many methods which are recommended for treating the condition. One recommended method is consuming probiotics. Probiotics are found in dairy products such as yoghurts and cheese, or can be bought in capsules. They are nutritional supplements that contain good bacteria which lives in gut. Limiting consumption of spicy or rich foods, caffeine, and fizzy juice or alcohol is also highly recommended.

Other recommendations include regular exercise, drinking plenty of water or herbal teas, peppermint tea or peppermint water, and decaffeinated drinks.

Peppermint and oat-based foods like porridge, oatcakes or oat-based cereals are good for bloating. Anti-spasmodic medicines relax the wall of the gut and relieve pain and discomfort caused by trapped wind or inflammation. Treating each symptom separately is also effective. Relaxation and complementary therapy techniques such as yoga and avoiding stress as much as possible will also help ward off IBS symptoms.

Living With IBS

As anyone with any experience of IBS can testify, living with IBS is not easy but understanding and monitoring lifestyle and diet is a highly effective way of relieving symptoms and coping with the condition. It is recommended that when and how often flare-ups start be recorded in a diary and shown to a doctor as evidence so the symptoms can be more readily treated. A food diary is also recommended so that any any particular foods or drink that triggers an attack can be identified and known to be avoided in the future.

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