Pulmonary, Gastrointestinal, and Musculoskeletal, Not Just Cardiac

Musculoskeletal

Anyone who experiences chest pain often feels a sense of alarm. People have been taught to see a physician for chest pain because it may be a heart attack. There is nothing wrong with such a concern. However, it does not mean that all episodes of chest pain are from coronary artery disease. There are other causes, including non-cardiac ones.

Cardiac Causes

Cardiac chest pain that isn't a heart attack can involve the outside of the heart. Normally, it sits within a fibrous sac called the pericardium. This sac can become inflamed (pericarditis) from various causes, including infection (e.g. virus, tuberculosis), autoimmune conditions (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus), uremia from kidney failure, certain medications, and radiation injury. The pain is usually in the center of the chest and is notably worsened when one takes a deep breath (pleuritic chest pain), swallows, or lies down. In contrast, this same pain can be lessened with sitting up and leaning forward.

A physician may hear a frictional rub when listening to the heart with a stethoscope. In some cases, the physician may order an echocardiogram, ultrasound of the heart, to see if there is fluid accumulation around the heart. It may be a small or large amount. In the worse case scenario, the amount of fluid is large enough to squeeze the heart and impair blood flow. This can be corrected with insertion of a needle through the chest wall and into the pericardium to drain the fluid (pericardiocentesis).

Other cardiac causes for chest pain include angina, myocardial infarction, and aortic dissection, all of which have already been discussed elsewhere.

Pulmonary Causes

Chest pain involving the lungs is uncommon, but it can happen. Occasionally, it can occur with pneumonia, constriction of lung airways (bronchospasm), or a blood clot or other material that travels through the veins and gets stuck in the lung (pulmonary embolism). Another cause is air within the lung cavity (pneumothorax). This can happen with trauma, like from a bullet or knife puncturing the lung, but it can also occur spontaneously, particularly in those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) whose lungs are susceptible to popping at fragile portions. Besides air, fluid can accumulate in the lung cavity (pleural effusion) from various causes. Other conditions involve the lining of the lung cavity (pleura), such as a respiratory infection with coxsackie virus B.

Gastrointestinal Causes

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) can cause chest pain, particularly one that is more dull and lasts a while. Spasm of the esophagus produces chest pain that feels similar to cardiac angina.

Interestingly, nitroglycerin relieves esophageal spasm pain very much like cardiac anginal pain, which is why esophageal spasm is known to mimic angina. Pancreatitis, cholecystitis, and peptic ulcer disease are rare causes of chest pain.

Musculoskeletal Causes

Muscle strain, rib fracture, and inflammation of the rib cartilage (costochondritis) cause pain from the chest wall itself. This type of pain is worsened with breathing, movement, or pressure over the pain site. However, if it occurs in someone prone to cardiac angina, the clinical picture can become confusing.

Final Words

The purpose of this overview is to clarify that not all chest pain is related to the heart. This does not mean that chest pain can be self-diagnosed. Given the risk taken with ignoring chest pain, it is recommended that a physician evaluate the symptom for a definitive determination.

References

  • Goroll, Allan H. "Evaluation of Chest Pain." Primary Care Medicine: Office Evaluation and Management of the Adult Patient. 5th ed. Ed. Allan H. Goroll and Albert G. Mulley, Jr. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins, 2006. 125-139.

buy steroids legit online

0 comments:

Advanced Directives

Advanced Directives

Advance directives are legal documents that allow control over decisions such as what care should be provided when capacity to make decisions is lost. There are two primary types. Firstly there is a Living Will and secondly a Durable Power of Attorney for health care. These are recognized and defined documents by statute with the aim of providing a legal tool by which people can express their wishes. However, they are not the exclusive means available to express wishes. Any authentic expression of a patient's wishes should be respected.

An advance directive cannot be completed after a patient becomes mentally incapacitated and it does not become effective until after incapacity has been determined. If an advance directive has been prepared, an authorized surrogate must be identified to make medical care decisions.

A living will expresses a patient's preferences for end-of-life medical care. State laws vary greatly regarding scope and applicability of living wills.

A living will allows people to express preferences for the amount and nature of their medical care, from no care to maximum care. Detailed treatment preferences are desirable because they provide more specific guidance to practitioners. A living will cannot compel health care practitioners to provide medical care that is medically or ethically unwarranted.

To be valid, a living will must comply with state law. The living wills should be written in a standardized way. It should be appropriately signed and witnessed. Living wills go into effect upon (1) the loss of ability to make health care decisions or (2) the existence of a medical condition specified in the directive—typically a terminal condition, permanent vegetative state, or the end-stage of a chronic condition. State law provides a process for confirming and documenting the loss of decisional capacity and the medical condition.

Durable power of attorney for health care is a document in which one person names another person to make decisions about health care and only health care.

While a living will states a person's specific preferences regarding medical treatment, a durable power of attorney for health care designates an agent to make health care decisions. People who have both a living will and a durable power of attorney for health care should stipulate which should be followed if the documents seem to conflict. Because predicting future circumstances in all of their complexity is virtually impossible and because the durable power of attorney for health care designates a decision maker who can respond to here-and-now circumstances, a durable power of attorney is far more practical and flexible than a living will. The agent is granted the power to discuss medical alternatives with the physicians and make decisions if an accident or illness incapacitates the person. In most states, a health care practitioner involved in the care of the patient cannot serve as agent for health care matters, unless the practitioner is a close relative. The durable power of attorney for health care can include a living will provision or any other specific instructions but, preferably, should do so only as guidance for the agent, rather than as a binding instruction.

The durable power of attorney for health care should name an alternate in case the first-named person is unable to proceed the role for certain reasons. Two or more people may be named to serve together or alone. The use of the durable power of attorney for health care is valuable for adults of all ages. It is especially critical for unmarried couples, same-sex partners, friends, or other individuals considered legally unrelated who wish to grant each other the legal authority to make health care decisions and to ensure rights of visitation and access to medical information.

Physicians should obtain a copy of a patient's living will and durable power of attorney for health care. The contents should be reviewed with the patient while the patient is still capable, and make it part of the medical record. A copy of the durable power of attorney for health care should also be given to the patient's appointed agent and another copy placed with important papers. The patient's attorney should hold a copy of all documents.

steroids for sale

0 comments:

Will New Proposals Pull the Plug on E-cigs?

E-cigs

It’s a typical scene in many UK bars and restaurants. While rain lashes down, smokers shiver outside under shelters or in doorways, indulging in a habit that’s illegal indoors.

Inside though, a group of people seem to be flouting the law. They are smoking what appear to be cigarettes, yet don’t have the smell of burning tobacco or ever need putting out.

They are smoking, or rather "vaping," electronic cigarettes - an innovation that’s not only regarded in some quarters as being much healthier than traditional cigarettes, but is inexpensive and legal to use indoors.

Most e-cigs consist of three parts – a battery, a chamber containing a heating element (referred to as an atomiser) and a cartridge containing a filter soaked in liquid, usually made up of nicotine extract, flavourings and propylene glycol, a chemical used in many foodstuffs. It is this that, when heated, produces the "‘smoke’" or vapour.

For smokers or anyone trying to quit, this all sounds too good to be true. And perhaps it is, due to a proposed change in the law which could soon see manufacturers of electronic cigarettes, or e-cigs as they are more commonly known, come under close scrutiny.

Proposals For Regulation Of E-cigs

This month, the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA), announced proposals to regulate e-cigs, which are currently classed as an unlicensed nicotine containing product, so that they are classed as a medicine. This would mean that any manufacturer/supplier of these products would have to apply to the MHRA for a medicines marketing authorisation, something that at a reported cost of 1.4 million pounds, could prove far too costly for many companies.
As a result, many manufacturers and users of e-cigs are concerned that the pharmaceutical industries could move in and effectively monopolise the market, marketing these products in the same way as nicotine patches, gum and inhalers.

Either way, this leaves consumers in an uncertain position, especially as many have found that e-cigs helped them quit where other methods have failed.

One such person is Jackie, an e-cig user from Hull, who says: “I was a 20 a day smoker for 20 years - I'd tried various methods of quitting then heard about e-cigs and out of pure curiosity bought one. I had an open mind about it - I wasn't really expecting to quit. However, I immediately went from 20 cigarettes a day to three or four, then quit completely. That was nearly five months ago and I'm still amazed at how easy it was for me.”

She’s not alone. A quick look online at one of the many e-cig forums reveals a worldwide network of contented ex-smokers who have finally managed to quit for good. Many report that their health has improved.

But, despite their testimonials, doubts remain in the eyes of some as to the safety of e-cigs and it is this concern which lies at the heart of the MHRA's proposal. Since its development in 2004, there has been little research into the e-cig, largely due to the cost of commissioning scientific tests.

Are E-cigs Safer Than Traditional Cigarettes?

Tests that have been carried out, however, suggest that this is a much safer product than traditional cigarettes, with Dr Joel Nitzkin, chair of the Tobacco Control Task Force for the American Association of public health physicians, saying: “We have every reason to believe that the hazard posed by e-cigarettes would be much lower than one percent. So, if the nicotine in e-cigarettes is the same as in prescription nicotine replacement therapy products, we can assume that the hazard posed by e-cigarettes would be much lower than that posed by regular cigarettes."

His views are echoed by some other healthcare experts. Indeed, while the MHRA raises its concerns, one UK-based e-cig company, Intellicig, has recently seen its product made available at every pharmacy in Greece.

The MHRA report states the need for some form of regulation to ensure that e-cigs are a safe product, saying: "We know from work done by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States that laboratory analyses of e-cigarette samples were found to contain carcinogens and toxic chemicals, against which general product safety legislation could not protect. Bringing all current unlicensed NCPs into regulation would eliminate these issues and ensure that smokers had products of the requisite quality, efficacy and safety to eliminate or reduce the harm from smoking."

Choosing The Right E-cig For You

Naturally, there is a bewildering range of e-cigs on the market, many varying wildly in quality and price, so it would seem to be logical that consumers are protected. However, some e-cig manufacturers claim that customer choice would be greatly limited if the product were only available from pharmacies and/or on prescription.

So, with a wide range of products at present to choose from, which one should someone wishing to try e-cigs go for?

For anyone who wants something that looks and feels almost exactly like a cigarette, try the EVOlution from Intellicig, a leading UK manufacturer. Alternatively, for products which take the concept of e-cigs to a more space age level, try the Jantystick (a small silver box) or eGo – a black e-cig resembling a 21st century cigar.

E-cig users are being invited to have their say on the MHRA proposals via its website.
Ultimately, whether e-cigs become an accepted NRT product or not remains to be seen, but many ex-smokers would strongly argue that e-cigs have helped them quit for good where other methods have seen their attempts to kick the habit go up in smoke.

steroids exercise

0 comments:

What is Poison Ivy and How to Treat It

Poison Ivy

Poison ivy is known as toxicodendron radicans. It is a plant the grows on a vine or shrub. Poison ivy grows in nearly every state in the United States and in some Canadian provinces. Some people are highly allergic to poison ivy. Here are some tips on what to look for and how to treat it.

What Poison Ivy Looks Like

Poison ivy either grows down low on the ground or in a hairy climbing vine attached to something like a tree. It is a plant that grows in leaves of three from a stem. The leaves are light to dark green and in the fall turn a reddish color.

When a person touches a poison ivy plant, the oil from the plant called urushiol sticks to the skin. Within a couple of days of contact with the ivy, a person will start to get red rash and it will be swollen. A few days after the rash starts, blisters will start popping up and will be itchy. Do not scratch it. It could become infected.

How to Treat Poison Ivy

When a person knows they have come in contact with poison ivy, they should wash the area with plain cool water as soon as possible. Do not use soap to wash the exposed area. Since urushiol is an oil, the soap will make it move around on the body. After washing with just plain cool water, they can then take a shower with soap and warmer water. The key is to get the oil off of the body as soon as possible. Wash any clothing or shoes that have come in contact with the poison ivy as well.

Some people are highly allergic to the plant and have to get medical treatment for it. If the person starts to run a fever, has a rash on the face or around the genitals, or the rash does not go away, it is a good time to see the doctor. With others, it is just a matter of weeks before the rash will go away on its own.

Just remember that the poison ivy oils can be carried on the family pet, clothes, shoes and any other thing that can come in contact with the plant. If someone is burning the ivy plant, do not breath in the smoke. as this can cause a rash as well.

For more information about poison ivy read treating poison ivy organically and poison ivy.

buy steroids jhb

0 comments:

Lyme Disease Ticks and Spirochetes

Since Lyme disease is the most common vectored disease in the US, possibly in the world, researchers are studying the organisms intensely. In the US, its causative agent is aspirochete: Borrelia burgdorferi. Borrelia requires both a tick host of the Ixodes genus and a warm-blooded host to complete its infectious cycle, reproducing inside both hosts. These bacteria are transmitted primarily by I. scapularis in the Eastern US, I. pacifica in the Western US.

After hatching, ticks pass through three life stages, each lasting about a year: larva, nymph, and adult. Ticks usually feed only once during each life stage. The transfer of Lyme Disease begins when a tick becomes infected by feeding on a vertebrate host with Bb. Inside the tick, the spirochetes are dormant. When the tick feeds on a new host, spirochetes reproduce, are passed to the warm-blooded host, and this host becomes infected. Spirochetes that remain in the tick become dormant again and wait for another feeding bout.

Ticks do not just transfer bacteria from one host to another. The ticks, the spirochetes, and the hosts are all altered by the transfers. The changes that Bb undergoes within the tick and the warm-blooded hosts are complicated, but knowing what they are will help understand why finding a vaccine against or cure for Lyme Disease is problematical.

Inside the Tick

Upon being drawn into a tick, the bacteria discard most of their surface proteins, produce new ones, attach to proteins on the surface of the tick's intestinal cells, and become quiescent. While quiescent inside the tick gut, the spirochetes manufacture only one or two variants of surface protein vlsE and possibly one variant of protein Osp. The change in nutrients and acidity when the tick eats again stimulates renewed bacterial reproduction.

A spirochete protein, BptA (Borrelia protein A) is needed for this reproduction to take place. The protein either allows the spirochete to utilize the fresh blood for nourishment or it prevents the hemoglobin newly released from the host cells from killing the bacteria. Bacteria in which BptA is inactive cannot reproduce and ticks that house the mutated BptA- strain of Bb eventually lose these spirochete symbionts.

When the Tick Bites

Spirochetes
Tick saliva contains anesthetics that inhibit host awareness of the bite. Other chemicals in tick saliva stimulate an increase in blood supply to the area, inhibit the blood from clotting, and inhibit the host's immune system.

The introduction of fresh blood cells into the tick causes the bacteria to leave the tick's gut wall, stimulates spirochete growth and reproduction, and triggers rapid changes in spirochete surface proteins that the vertebrate host's immune system uses to fight off this disease agent. The bacteria also move to the tick's salivary glands and when the tick begins to spit the blood fluids back into the host, Bb is injected into its new host along with these fluids.

Over the course of the three or four days that the tick feeds, individual spirochetes produce up to five variants of vlsE proteins and one or two Osp variants. There are four possible combinations of the two Osp variants (A and B): no Osp, OspA, OspB, and OspA and B together. Mix those four combinations with several variants of vlsE proteins, and there may be well over a hundred different protein combinations on the surface of the spirochetesentering the new host. This means that the host's immune system is receiving a double whammy: being assaulted by the equivalent of 100 or more different types of bacteria at the same time that it is being attacked by tick salivary proteins that suppress its immune system.

Spirochetes have more time to alter their surface proteins toward the end of the tick's feeding bout making it important to have the tick removed as early as possible when a human or pet is bitten as their immune systems have fewer types of bacteria to identify and destroy. But this alone would not be sufficient to prevent Lyme disease. It is of utmost importance to obtain treatment early.

buy steroids growth hormone

0 comments:

Lyme Disease Transmission

Lyme Disease
Lyme disease (LD) is normally transmitted by ticks, usually Ixodes scapularis, the black-legged tick; but other ticks, mosquitoes, and horse flies have been known to also transmit it. If not interrupted, ticks feed for four or more days. They become engorged within a day of biting, but stay about the same size although they continue to feed for several more days.

Transmitting the Bacteria

Blood is composed of only 40% blood cells, and those are about 90% water. Thus, about 95% of what the tick removes from the host has no nutritive value for the tick. In order to prevent itself from exploding from excess water, the tick removes nutrients and proteins (albumin and hemoglobin) from the blood and vomits the liquid back into the host: repeatedly sucking fresh blood, removing the nutrients, and spitting the liquid back.

If the tick is infected, the bacteria are injected while the tick is regurgitating. This usually does not happen until the tick has become engorged with blood – about 36 hours or more after attaching, but some have contracted LD from ticks that were imbedded less than 10 hours without becoming engorged. Removing a non-swollen tick usually means the person will probably not be infected unless the tick is squeezed or caused to regurgitate before releasing its bite, but a doctor should always be informed about tick bites.

Removing Ticks

A plastic card with a v cut at one end removes ticks easily, but a fine tweezers or removal tool may also be used. The card or tool is slipped under the tick with the point of the v at its head (the part with feet sticking out) and pushed toward the tick's rear. If the tick is newly imbedded, it usually pops out. If the jaws of the tick, or even its head might break off and remain in the skin, a doctor should remove the tick to prevent infection. The area should be flushed with an astringent mouthwash or alcohol, and the tick killed in the same liquid. If a tick cannot be removed easily, a doctor should remove it.

Ticks must not be removed by trying to:
  • Heat them with a cigarette. They will vomit immediately.
  • Burn them. They will vomit and die.
  • Cover them with petroleum jelly. They only breathe a couple of times an hour and will not suffocate.
  • Squeeze them. Any bacteria they have will be regurgitated.
  • Flood them with alcohol or mouthwash. They vomit and die.

Preventing Tick Bites

Just because a tick crawls onto a person does not mean it will feed. Once on a potential host, the tick may drop off or crawl to the body and imbed, often in hair, sometimes against a barrier such as belted clothing. Standard methods of preventing tick bites are to:
  • Tuck pant legs inside socks.
  • Use insect repellent on clothing and skin.
  • Check for ticks after every session outside.
  • Wear light colored clothing.
Even the most rigorous attention to these methods does not always protect against bites. Some individuals are more prone to being bitten than others. A less "orthodox" addition to the above techniques is to:
  • Take two 500 mg garlic capsules and 1000 mg of fish oil daily.

Those who have tried it, find the combination even more effective in reducing the number of bites. People who were once "tick magnets" almost immediately find very few ticks on them once adding these oils to their diets. Thus, the combination of garlic and fish oil is highly recommented to repel ticks for people who are not allergic to them. Garlic powder is touted by several animal feed stores as an excellent way to keep pets and domestic animals free from ticks. But dosing pets with huge amounts of garlic can be fatal to them. Like all medications, moderation is the rule.

buy steroids germany

0 comments:

Non-Toxic Head Lice Treatments

Pesticide-Free Alternatives to Kill Lice


Concerned about potentially toxic head lice treatments? Some parents are leery of exposing children to the insecticides in the widely-available OTC products or prescription-only treatments, or fear allergic reactions. Others question effectiveness, noting some recent reports indicating lice may be becoming resistant.

An internet search for pesticide-free lice treatments reveals a vast and confusing array of commercial products and home remedies with detailed instructions. Most include enthusiastic testimonials, but deeper searching may uncover many reports of treatment failures. Few offer conclusive, well-controlled research to back up their claims. How do you make a choice?

Know this first

It’s critical to understand the life cycle of the head louse. Adult lice can live on the scalp about 30 days and lay up to 100 eggs (nits), firmly “gluing” them to the hair shaft. New lice hatch in 7-10 days, and reach maturity and lay eggs 7-10 days later unless killed or removed first. That’s why a one-time treatment (even insecticidal) is unlikely to resolve the problem; all effective methods aim to kill live lice, but the nits usually remain and will later hatch, requiring re-treatment.

Four pesticide-free possibilities


Head Lice

Approach #1: Smother lice

The goal is death by suffocation: the hair is thoroughly saturated with a viscous household substance like olive oil, mayonnaise, or petroleum jelly, then covered tightly. Leaving the treatment on several hours is key, as preliminary laboratory research at Harvard University indicated lice “recovered” from one hour of olive oil submersion. Treatments must be repeated as nits hatch. Reports of success are mostly anecdotal. An exception is the “Nuvo Treatment”, which uses a skin cleanser and blow-drying. A controlled clinical study published in the September 2004 issue of Pediatrics claimed up to 96% effectiveness for this method.

Approach #2: Kill lice on contact

Natural health stores, websites, and some drugstores sell enzyme-based, herbal or essential oil-containing treatments marketed as effective in killing lice. Home “recipes”, too, may advocate mixtures infused with tea tree oil, anise, eucalyptus or neem oil, among others. One best-selling commercial product lists sodium chloride (salt) as the active ingredient. All of these treatments probably act on lice via neurotoxic effects. As with the suffocation techniques, individual successes are abundant but hard clinical evidence can be hard to come by. Some experts caution parents against the use of essential oils in young children.

Approach #3: Electrocute lice

Battery-operated lice combs that “zap” lice can be purchased. Unlike traditional louse combs, these must be used on dry hair, and do not claim to destroy or remove eggs. Fans claim these have worked where other treatments have failed, while critics have questioned whether they reach the scalp and/or truly kill, rather than just impair, the lice.

Approach #4: Manual removal

Almost all “non-toxic” approaches suggest combining regular removal of eggs using a nit comb with the chosen treatment. Some, such as the National Pediculosis Association, go further and assert that combing and nit-picking alone is the ONLY surefire means of eradicating lice. One drawback in relying on combing alone without a lice-killing treatment is the large amount of time, diligence and compliance required of both parents and children. Missing even a few viable nits can result in the cycle of infestation beginning again.

Stay the course!

Dealing with lice can be challenging and requires persistence. There are no miracle cures, but a combination of a lice-killing treatment with meticulous combing/nitpicking is a one-two punch that can ultimately prove successful in winning the battle.

can you buy steroids online

0 comments:

Online Pharmacy Frauds

American Sites Selling not so 'Canadian' Drugs


It’s a billion dollar business. ‘Canadian’ drugs online mean huge profits for pharmacies that span the web.

But the FDA's Office of Criminal Investigations found that about 86 percent of online pharmacies claiming to be Canadian are actually hosted by US companies.

Researchers tracked about 11,000 Internet pharmacies that claimed to be accredited Canadian sites, and found that less than 25 percent were legit. The rest were hosted by companies or individuals outside Canada, 86 percent from the US.

online pharmacy

Americans flock to Canadian sites because they pay less- typically 20-25 percent says researcher Maria Bekiaris in her article Cut-Price Medicine. In large part it’s because the Canadian drug industry is regulated while the US industry is not she says.

It’s not even legal for Americans to buy drugs from accredited Canadian sites, specifically under the U.S. Prescription Drug Marketing Act (PDMA), 1987.

The FDA advises that these Canadian sites are not safe, let alone fraudulent, unregulated ones.

“Patients who buy prescription drugs from Websites operating outside the law are at increased risk of suffering life-threatening adverse events…we know from history that tolerating the sale of unproven, fraudulent, or adulterated drugs results in harm to the public health,” states its website.

That’s why the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy offers the Verified Internet Pharmacy Practice Sites program (VIPPS), a list of approved on-line pharmacies. People may also call the association at 1-(847) 391-4406.
It’s the only professional organization that represents eight Canadian provinces plus all 50 American states, the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, New Zealand, South Africa and two Australian states.

The VIPPS list won’t safeguard against drug abuse though. An American study investigated how easily people could get drugs on the Web. Columbia University’s National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse conducted the study two years ago and published the results in its paper You’ve Got Drugs! Prescription Drug Pushers on the Internet.

Researchers tracked 495 sites that sold risky and addictive drugs. Only six per cent asked for a prescription.

“Our findings are alarming” researchers said in conclusion. “These drugs are as easy for children to buy over the Internet as candy. All they need is a credit card.”

This easy drug access, the study suggested, has attracted addicts and young drug abusers.

Although U.S. Customs and the FDA have occasionally intercepted shipments from Canada, they have never prosecuted an American consumer because they do not have the manpower they say, Patricia Barry of the Canadian International Pharmacy Association says on its website.

buy steroids sale

0 comments:

Is Your Loved One Being Treated Properly

hospital places

Having a friend or loved one in the hospital places them in a vulnerable position. Let's face it if the patient were healthy they wouldn't be in the hospital. It is up to you and your family to be their advocate to make sure they are getting proper patient care and to detect if there are signs of neglect. If you suspect that the patient is not getting proper care, here are a few things you can do and look for to determine whether or not your loved one is a victim of neglect:
  1. Sniff around: Literally use your nose to help determine signs of neglect. Although hospital smells are not appealing, you will quickly recognize which smells are normal hospital smells and which ones are not. Your sense of smell will help you to quickly determine if your loved one is getting the proper care in being bathed and cleaned regularly. If not it is a sign of patient neglect.
  2. Look for bedsores: If the patient has bedsores, you'd be right to suspect patient neglect. The staff is not adequately moving your loved one enough to prevent them.
  3. Examine the linen: If it is soiled and has been that way for an extended period of time, it is another sign of improper patient care.
  4. Determine if the patient is dehydrated or hungry:. Be careful with this one. If your loved one is refusing food and drink, that is not neglect, however, if they are complaining about hunger and you see that their water pitcher is constantly empty, it could be a sign of patient neglect.
  5. Talk to the staff: If they are overworked, harried, impatient and generally unhappy, there is a possibility that their workload precludes them from providing adequate patient care.
  6. Trust your instincts: Too many times people do not take their own instincts seriously. If you have a gut feeling that things aren't going right, more times than not, your gut is correct. Seek help.

A few tips:

  • Since visitors inadvertently become patient advocates, coordinate visitation so that the hospital staff and nurses are aware that your loved one has friends/family who care about their well being and are willing to do what it takes to ensure proper patient care.
  • If you suspect hospital neglect, speak to the staff. If it has gone beyond the point where speaking to the staff yields results, contact the Consumer Services Department of your state's Attorney General's office.
  • For more information visit on reporting suspected patient abuse, visit the Department of Labor website.

steroids oral

0 comments:

Pets provide unconditional love

Pets don't care what we wear or if our hair is combed.


Pets

pets
Pets provide unconditional love and companionship for people of all ages—a fact that any pet owner can confirm. But scientific research also suggests pets help people control blood pressure and manage stress. Researchers have taken an interest in pets because controlling stress and blood pressure are vital keys to reducing the risk of heart disease, heart attack, and stroke. A 2000 study, for instance, found that dogs help relieve cardiovascular stress in people who have had difficulty controlling their stress.

The study was just one of a series that demonstrated the positive health benefits of pet ownership. Dr. Karen Allen has led a team of researchers from the State University of New York (SUNY) at Buffalo in a series of pet-related studies that began more than a decade ago. Their results have repeatedly demonstrated that people show a reduced stress response (i.e., less of a rise in blood pressure or heart rate) if their pet happens to be nearby. Pets comfort us when we face life’s many challenges.

The SUNY-Buffalo research team has also studied the effects of owning a pet on a group of hypertensive people who were caring for their brain-injured spouses. Half of the caregivers adopted a dog for six months. At the end of those six months, the new pet owners were reacting to stress better than they had before, and better than the caregivers who did not have a pet. The other half of the caregivers then adopted a dog. After another six months, all of the caregivers were reacting better to stress.

Research has found that health benefits are not limited to dogs or (by extension) cats. A study found that watching brightly colored fish swim back and forth in an aquarium helped calm people prone to disruptive behavior, such as children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Nursing homes in both the United States and Europe have documented the helpful effects of bringing in pets to visit the residents, and many people have benefited from therapeutic programs that allow them to interact with horses, dolphins, and other animals.

Exactly why pets can have a positive physiological effect is not clear, but experts have a number of theories. Research in general has shown that people tend to be healthier when they have a companion. In addition, studies have shown that people enjoyed more social interaction if they were accompanied by a dog. It may also be that people have an easier time reaching out to a person’s pet than a person! Pets bridge all communication gaps.

buy steroids with bitcoins

0 comments:

Other Effects of Obesity

More Than Just Cardiovascular Disease


Whenever there is talk about obesity, it is generally discussed alongside the risks for heart attack and stroke. In reality, there is a long list of conditions that obesity is associated with an increased risk for. While this article will not cover every single one, it will highlight some of the effects of obesity that people may be less aware of.

obesity

Sleep Apnea

Sleep apnea is when you stop breathing momentarily in your sleep. It could be a central sleep apnea from neurological impairment or obstructive sleep apnea from your airway closing off. Obesity is a cause of obstructive sleep apnea because excess fat tissue around the airway and in your neck can make the airway easier to collapse. What ultimately happens is that you would be excessively sleepy in the daytime, enough to impair concentration and put you at risk for accidents.

Keep in mind that you do not need to be obese to have obstructive sleep apnea. Upper airway obstruction has other causes, including substances relaxing the throat muscles such as alcohol and anatomical causes like enlarged tonsils. Even thin people can have sleep apnea.

Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome

Another breathing problem could occur with obesity. If you were to be massively obese, the heavy weight of fat tissue in your belly could actually make it hard to take a deep breath. Over time, you would build up carbon dioxide in your system and also have a low oxygen level, which would lead to daytime sleepiness and fatigue. This is called obesity hypoventilation syndrome, also called Pickwickian syndrome. Though it has similarities with sleep apnea, do not confuse the two because they are not one and the same.

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

GERD, commonly known as acid reflux, can occur with obesity for the same reason as obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Weight from abdominal fat tissue can push the stomach upward, which then pushes its acidic contents upward into the esophagus. While medications for acid reflux can be used, they do not address the root of the problem.

Osteoarthritis

With obesity, there is an increased risk for osteoarthritis in the knees. This is because of the amount of stress put on the knees when one is obese, and there is evidence that shows this. Surprisingly, obesity is also associated with an increased risk for osteoarthritis in other joints, like the hands. This may suggest a metabolic process with obesity and osteoarthritis, not just a mechanical process.

Intertriginous Dermatitis

There are certain areas of skin that fold, allowing moisture to collect if there is a lack of hygiene. They include the groin and the skin under the breasts in women. With obesity, another place would be the skin under the protruding belly. If moisture is trapped in these tight spaces long enough, skin inflammation takes place. This is called intertriginous dermatitis.

Final Words

Obesity is associated with a long list of health risks, more than what is described here. While there are treatment options for each of the individual conditions, the best way to treat them is to lose weight and eliminate the root of the problem. Maintaining a healthy weight is more than preventing cardiovascular disease and other conditions. It is about living a long healthy life.

buy steroids tablets uk

0 comments:

Recognizing an emergency and getting your bill paid

emergency call
It's every parent's worst fear. It's the middle of the night and your child is sick. How do you know when to take her to the emergency room?
It can be tempting to take your child to the ER at the first sign of trouble, but it is never a good idea to pay your local hospital a visit without good information. An unnecessary trip to the ER can result in an hours-long wait. If an occasion is non-emergent, those with urgent conditions will be treated first, and if your “emergency” isn't truly an emergency, the hospital can refuse to treat you once you've been triaged.

If your child is under one year and has a fever above 100 degrees, a call to your pediatrician and a trip to the ER is justified. If your child is over one year, a fever alone is not reason enough for an ER visit. The fever can be treated with over the counter ibuprofen or acetaminophen until you can get to your pediatrician's office. If the fever is accompanied by a headache, a rash, a stiff or painful neck, severe vomiting, convulsions or lethargy call your doctor and have him meet you at the emergency room. Other reasons for ER visits are severe pain in the right lower area of the abdomen, coughing or vomiting blood and unresponsiveness.

In addition to wasted time, your insurance company may not pay for a non-emergent visit to the emergency department. Most insurance companies have “reasonable use” policies to cover ER visits. If the claims adjuster feels that a reasonable person would think the symptoms presented at the time of the visit were an emergency, then the claim will be paid. The problem with this system is that it is highly subjective and there is little recourse if you do not agree with the outcome. Even if your insurance company does pay, there are often larger deductibles and co-pays involved with ER visits.

If your child is sick in the middle of the night, there are options. Many emergency departments have a phone nurse on staff. The nurse can provide advice or just reassurance. She can also tell you if you are facing a true emergency that requires a visit. If you call ahead and receive prior authorization, you can often avoid the long waits associated with ER visits. Your doctor's office may have a 24 hour number or a book with common child health problems and solutions.

Having a sick child can make you feel helpless, but with some forethought and good information, you can provide the best care for your child.

steroids exercise

0 comments:

What is Carbon Monoxide Poisoning?

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, carbon monoxide is a gas that is hard to detect and that can kill an individual in a very short period of time. Each year hundreds of individuals die after unknowingly inhaling carbon monoxide. Being aware of the symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning and preventing carbon monoxide leaks has the potential to save lives.

Causes of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

According to the Center for Disease Control carbon monoxide poisoning can occur when an individual breathes in combustion fumes. Car exhaust, gas stoves, gas heaters, and a variety of other combustion based household appliances emit carbon monoxide. Normally this is not a problem, but if too much carbon monoxide accumulates in an area that is not well ventilated the results can be tragic.

Symptoms of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

The NY Times reports carbon monoxide causes the body to be oxygen starved because it takes the place of oxygen in the blood. Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning are; trouble breathing, chest pain, confusion, dizziness, drowsiness, seizures, fainting, headaches, nausea and vomiting, coma, and death.

Treatment for Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

Treatment for carbon monoxide poisoning can only take place if the victim is given medical attention early enough. A victim should first be moved out of the toxic environment. Once medical help arrives the victim will be taken to the hospital for treatment. Because of the illusive nature of carbon monoxide many victims of carbon monoxide poisoning die before help is ever received.

Preventing Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

Carbon monoxide poisoning is preventable if individuals take precautionary measures. The Center for Disease Control makes the following recommendations in order to prevent tragedy associated with carbon monoxide poisoning:

  • Have gas furnaces and water heaters checked by a professional at least once a year
  • Install a carbon monoxide detector on each floor of a home
  • Do not use fuel burning appliances, grills, generators etc... near any window of a home and never use such items within an enclosed area
  • Do not leave a car running in a garage connected to a house, regardless of whether the door or garage windows are open
  • Do not leave a gas oven door open with the intent of heating a house
  • Do not burn any items in a fireplace or stove without a vent
  • Get out of the house immediately if a carbon monoxide detector starts beeping and call 911 so that authorities can check the health of individuals in the house as well as the house itself.

is it safe to order steroids online

0 comments:

When to Change TED Hose

TED hose, also known as anti-embolism stockings, are recommended by health care providers for individuals who are prone to poor leg circulation, deep vein thrombosis, extended periods in bed, etc. TED hose are worn to help reduce swelling and increase circulation in the legs. They are available in both thigh and knee high lengths in a variety of sizes. TED hose should be worn as recommended by a health care provider. The stockings must be taken care of properly to maximize their effect. Knowing when to change and replace them helps to insure they are being used properly.

TED Hose

TED hose are worn for specific periods each day. A health care provider will determine the amount of time per day an individual wears TED hose. After each recommended amount of time wearing the hose is reached, the hose should be removed and properly cleaned. Changing TED hose after each use can help lengthen the amount of time each pair will last before needing replaced. This also allows the TED hose to be washed and dried completely before their next use.

TED hose should be changed immediately if the become wet or soiled. If the recommended amount of time the hose should be worn has not been met when they become dirty, change them and replace with a clean, dry pair. Wearing TED hose that are damp or wet can lead to skin irritation and discomfort. When the hose become dirty they need to be removed and cleaned before their next use. Dirty TED hose can hold germs and bacteria which can lead to infections if allowed to enter the body.

Change TED hose if they become ripped or snagged. Anti-embolism stockings are designed to (and made of material that allow them to) gently compress, or squeeze, the legs to increase circulation and decrease swelling. Anti-embolism stockings that become torn or snagged cannot work properly since tears and snags prevent the hose from compressing the legs as desired. Change TED hose when they become ripped and throw the torn pair away.

TED hose should be changed if they become too loose or too tight. They are designed to squeeze the legs gently. If the hose become too tight, they can cause harm and impair circulation in the legs. Anti-embolism stockings that fit loosely prevent them from doing their job by not allowing the legs to be compressed by the hose. Proper fitting hose are important to ensuring they do the job for which they were designed. Ill-fitting hose should be changed and replaced with a properly fitted pair.

online steroids

0 comments:

Cell Phone Use and Cancer

Several medical studies have shown possible links between cell phone use and health problems, including cancer. Although there are no definitive links, a number of medical professionals are now calling for people, especially children, to limit their use of these devices.

Cell Phone Use

Warning Sent to Staff to Limit Cell Phone Use

In July 2008, Dr. Ronald Herberman, Center for Environmental Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Center, warned 3,000 staff and faculty about cell phone use. Dr. Herberman’s memo included a recommendation that children should use cell phones only in emergencies and adults should use the speakerphone feature or wireless headsets. There is not enough information available on the effect of electromagnetic radiation on developing brains to determine if there is a cause for concern; however, Dr. Herberman believes that there is no reason to wait for science to provide an answer. Instead, limiting use is a more proactive approach.

Possible Link Between Cell Phone Use and Salivary Gland Tumors

Another study, which appeared in the February 2008 issue of the American Journal of Epidemiology, suggested a link between heavy cell phone use and salivary gland cancer. This study was the first study to examine long-term use of cell phones. According to the study, people who used a cell phone held up to their face for several hours per day were 50% more likely to develop a tumor in the salivary gland.

Behavioral Problems and Cell Phone Use

In May 2008, a study completed by UCLA and Danish researchers released data linking behavioral problems in children to cell phone use by mothers while pregnant. According to the study, when a mother used a cell phone during pregnancy, children had a higher risk of being hyperactive, having conduct problems and difficulties with emotions and social relationships. If these children used cell phones before the age of seven, the risk became higher. The researchers, however, could not explain why such a connection may exist and accept the results may not reflect cell phone use but may be caused by other reasons, such as the mothers that spent a great deal of time on their cell phone were not paying attention to their children.

No Definitive Link Has Yet Been Shown

Despite the studies that suggest health problems as a result of cell phone use, there has not been any study showing a definitive link between cell phone use and cancer, or any other health problems. A study published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute in December 2006 indicated that there was no link between cell phone use and cancer. In addition, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reviewed the results of a long-term Swedish study that found a link between brain cancer and cell phone use and found the results to be inconsistent with earlier studies and difficult to interpret.

Researchers will continue to review the present information as well as conduct additional studies to determine if there is any link between cell phone use and health problems. However, for anyone concerned with the risks, using a wireless headset and keeping the phone away from your body (either by using a holster or keeping it in a purse or briefcase) can help eliminate risks.

illegal steroids online with a credit card

0 comments:

A Night at the Sleep Center

Sleep Center

Diagnosing sleep apnea starts with an appointment with your family doctor. A history of possible sleep apnea symptoms is recorded. As sleep apnea symptoms are often seen alongside depression, GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease), asthma, obesity, and impotence, the doctor may ask questions that, on the surface, seem to have little to do with sleeping habits.

During the appointment the doctor also performs a physical exam, looking for evidence of physical sleep apnea causes. He or she will check the mouth, nose, and throat for possible obstructions.
As bed partners often that notice sleep apnea symptoms first, their input and observations can be very helpful when diagnosing sleep apnea. If bed partners can attend the doctor's appointment they can provide valuable information that aids in making a diagnosis.

Sleep Apnea Clinics

If the doctor suspects sleep apnea, the patient is usually referred to a sleep apnea clinic or sleep center for further tests. There the patient will meet with a sleep apnea doctor, who will ask further questions about the patient's symptoms.

If the sleep apnea doctor believes testing is required, the patient will return to the sleep center for a sleep apnea test.

A polysomnogram, or sleep recording, uses electrodes and other measuring devices to record the patient's sleep pattern. A polysomnogram is a painless procedure: sleep center staff fit the patient with the measuring equipment in the evening and the patient then sleeps in one of the sleep clinic's rooms under the watchful eye of the staff.

A polysomnogram sleep apnea test measure a wide range of sleep-related body functions, including:
  • Air flow through the lungs
  • Blood oxygen levels
  • Brain activity
  • Breathing
  • Heart rate
  • Muscle movement
  • Rapid eye movement while dreaming.

In cases where patients cannot visit a sleep apnea clinic it is possible to take a sleep apnea test at home. This is not the usual procedure: sleep apnea tests are best performed at a sleep center. If circumstances require a home test, however, a sleep center can send a staff member to the house in the evening. The staff member will set up a portable version of the polysomnogram test, which records the sleeper's activity. In the morning, the machine is picked up and returned to the sleep center.

Sleep Apnea Test Results

After the sleep apnea test results have been analyzed, the patient has another appointment with the sleep apnea doctor to discuss his or her condition. At this time the sleep specialist will explain the causes of sleep apnea and discuss sleep apnea treatment options with the patient.

Disclaimer: The information contained within this article is for informational purposes only, and is not intended to be a substitute in any way for care and treatment by a qualified health professional.

buy steroids quebec

0 comments:

What is Involved in Rhinoplasty

rhinoplasty

Noses present with all kinds of bumps and humps that can cause emotional distress and anxiety. Rhinoplasty is the name given to the procedure to remodel a nose.

How is Rhinoplasty Performed

A closed rhinoplasty is done through incisions inside the nose. This method is suitable for adjusting or reducing the nose’s size and shape. In an open rhinoplasty, an incision is made across the strip of skin between the nostrils. This allows easier access for more extensive work.

Who will Benefit from Rhinoplasty

Rhinoplasty is suitable for adults whose noses are fully grown and developed. It may also be performed on children who have sustained damage through an accident or who were born with a nasal defect.

What can Rhinoplasty Achieve

A successful rhinoplasty can change a person’s appearance, profile and mindset. Even a minor physical adjustment can have a major psychological effect.

What Rhinoplasty Cannot Do

Plastic surgeons have to work with the original nose and there are limits to what they can do. It is important to trust the surgeon who sees the whole picture of how the remodelled nose will fit into the face. Have realistic expectations and work with the experts.

What Form of Anesthesia is used

Most rhinoplastys are done under general anesthetic but minor remodelling can be done under local anesthesia. This is normally accompanied by sedation so the patient doesn’t remember much of the procedure.

What are the Steps of a Rhinoplasty

A typical rhinoplasty will follow these steps:
  • The surgeon makes small incisions inside the nose
  • The cartilage is reshaped and trimmed as necessary
  • In some cases, the nasal bones will be broken and repositioned
  • Tissue can be removed and cartilage and bone grafts introduced to build up areas as needed
  • The incisions are sutured closed
  • The nose is packed with gauze and taped to maintain its new shape and reduce swelling

Caring for the Nose after Rhinoplasty

It is important to rest after rhinoplasty. Avoid talking too much and lie still and relax. Don’t try and blow the nose and avoid bending and lifting.

Side Effects of Rhinoplasty

The most common effect is severe bruising and swelling around the eyes. This is more evident when the nasal bones have been broken.

How Long will Recovery Take

The nose will be swollen for about six weeks and it often takes a year for the final result to be seen. Areas of numbness are common as is a sensation of pins and needles. The bruising and discoloration take two to three weeks to subside and can be hidden to a certain extent with makeup.

A rhinoplasty can greatly improve the appearance of a nose and so give confidence to a person. It is essential that this type of surgery is fully understood and the limitations accepted before going ahead with it. With time and a positive outlook, rhinoplasty can transform a person’s life.

where to order steroids online forum

0 comments:

What is Frostbite?

Most people living in northern climates have heard about frostbite. Exposing the skin and underlying tissues, especially of the extremities including the hands and feet, to extremely cold temperatures can lead to the development of frostbite. If cold exposure is severe enough, tissues can actually die.

frostbite

Ice Formation Inside Tissues

The body works hard to maintain the temperature of all of its tissues, both at the core of the body and at the periphery. Peripheral tissues such as the fingers, the toes, the ears, the nose and the lips are, however, at highest risk for damage as a result of exposures to extremely cold temperatures. When conditions are most dangerous, this extreme exposure can lead to the actual formation of ice crystals inside the tissues, first occurring near to the surface tissues just below the external skin, and then progressing to deeper tissue structures. When this happens, frostbite develops.

How Ice Damages Tissues

When ice crystals start to form in tissues, the cells that make up the tissues are not equipped to deal with its effects. Cells start to get injured because of disruption of cell membranes and the loss of cellular integrity. If the exposure continues, the body tries to deal with the exposure to the cold by regulating the performance of the circulatory system. Unfortunately, this typically means that the first response is to shunt more of the blood to the vital organs at the core of the body, worsening the cooling of the extremities. Soon afterwards, the blood vessels in the extremities try to overreact and start dilating and then constricting before the body recognizes that it needs to stop supplying blood to the extremities altogether to preserve as much heat in the core as possible.

Loss of Tissue Oxygenation

As the freezing progresses, a reduction in blood flow and the damage sustained by the blood vessels themselves can lead to loss of oxygenation of the tissue, what is known as necrosis. When tissues stop getting the oxygen that they need, the tissue begins to die. After a frostbite injury it is not uncommon for surgeons to have to wait for several days before they can determine how much of the tissue has actually died. Injuries to tissues can be severe enough to warrant amputation, and rewarming of the tissues must be done carefully in order to minimize further injury.

Preventing Frostbite

When it comes to frostbite, prevention is absolutely the best approach. It is not simply enough to dress more warmly as the temperature drops. Awareness of overall conditions can be very important. For those into mountaineering, exposure to a low temperature at higher altitudes can be more rapidly destructive. Combining low temperature with exposure to water can also be extremely problematic. And frostbite is not only a province of winter extremes, it can occur in those people who work with dry ice or with liquefied gases such as liquid nitrogen and liquid oxygen.

buy steroids guangzhou

0 comments:

Vitamin D Essential to Good Health

vitamin d

The results of the first Canadian study of the effects of vitamin D deficiency have been released by Toronto’s Hospital for Sick Children, and they look worrying.

Northern Latitudes Lack Vitamin D

Health Canada says that “Vitamin D is synthesized in the skin upon exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation.” That, of course, comes from the sun, so Vitamin D is often called the “sunshine vitamin.”

However, Canada being a northern country means that the sun’s UVB is weaker than in tropical regions. The result, according to Health Canada is that “Vitamin D synthesis in the skin is absent during the winter months (October to March), and for an even greater part of the year in far northern latitudes. This means that for a significant portion of the year, Canadians must rely on dietary intake of vitamin D to maintain adequate levels of vitamin D in the body.”

Sources of dietary vitamin D include milk, fatty fish, and egg yolks. Also, inexpensive supplements in pill form are available at pharmacies and health food stores.

Canadian Kids Don’t get Enough Vitamin D

Doctors at Toronto’s Hospital for Sick Children say that one third of Canadian youngsters living in urban areas don’t get enough of the sunshine vitamin. In a report released on May 4, 2009, researchers say their “finding is markedly higher than the data from a previous study of toddlers in Boston that found 14 percent of that population was lacking Vitamin D.”

Between November 2007 and June 2008, the study team “evaluated 92 healthy children aged 24 to 30 months who were attending routine well-child visits at a community-based pediatric practice in Toronto.” They monitored dietary intake through questionnaires filled in by parents and established Vitamin D levels through blood tests.

“The study revealed that factors associated with lower levels of vitamin D included lower milk intake, higher Body Mass Index (BMI), and watching television while snacking.”

Negative Health Effects of too little Vitamin D

The study’s lead author is Dr. Jonathon Maguire, an Academic Fellow in the SickKids Division of Pediatric Medicine who is pursuing a Master’s degree in Clinical Epidemiology at the University of Toronto. He is quoted by the hospital as saying, “Vitamin D deficiency is associated with a number of chronic medical conditions.”

He lists these as including rickets (a disease that may cause severe bone deformities and seizures), Type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and certain types of cancers.

Other researchers have suggested that vitamin D deficiency may be associated with tuberculosis, high blood pressure, seasonal affective disorder, and memory loss.

Writing about the study in The Globe and Mail (May 4, 2009) Martin Mittelstaedt noted that researchers believe babies get enough vitamin D from fortified formula and/or breast milk. He added that the story with toddlers seems to be different: “The finding of widespread insufficiency indicates most children aren’t getting enough vitamin D either through diet or through sunlight exposure. Dr. Maguire said that developing strategies to prevent deficiencies “would seem to be a prudent thing to do.’ ”

steroids effects

0 comments:

Using Generic Drugs

generic drugs

Generic drugs can save you money because they cost less than brand-name prescriptions.

Unlike other types of generic products such as cereal or soup where the brand is often better, generic medications are just as pure, effective and high quality as their brand counterparts.

Generic drugs, by law, must have the same active ingredients than the brand names, and they are plentiful – generic options are available for about half of all prescription drugs currently on the market, a recent Consumer Reports report stated.

According to the Consumer Reports article, “Shopper’s Guide to Prescription Drugs” from 2006, generics are simply copies of the medications that have expired patents. It can take any where from 10 to 14 years for a patent to expire, at which point the brand-name manufacturer loses the right to be the only seller of the drug.

What’s Causing All the Confusion?

The confusion between choosing a generic or name brand often is because the name brand stays on the market while the generic is being sold. Seeing the two together, many people tend to choose the name brand because, as is the case with the soup they like to eat, they think the name brand must be better.

Another reason people are not using generics is because they may have been using the brand name for a while and don’t want to switch for fear it won’t work as effectively.

Still another reason generic medications haven’t caught on is because they often look different from the name brands. Again, this goes back to the comfort level of the patient. People like to stick with what they know without considering other options. Pharmaceutical companies have spent millions selling the image of their drugs to people, and, according to this logic, it’s no wonder. Once the idea is planted, it’s hard to uproot and plant another.

Ask Your Doctor About Generics

According to Providence Health Plans’ Web site, generic drugs are now available in all major therapeutic drug classes and are usually subject to a lower copayment or coinsurance, and generics offer effective treatment for many of the common conditions treated in routine care and are equivalent to brand-name products in safety, quality and performance.

If you are interested in trying generic medications, you must speak with your doctor. Pharmacists can change a doctor’s order from brand name to generic, but they have to ask you, by law. If you want more information, even after speaking to your doctor, consult your pharmacist. He or she will be able to provide additional insight about whether or not you should choose a name brand or generic.

steroids cost

0 comments:

How to Recognize and Prevent Burnout

burnout
What is it?
Burnout occurs when a person feels overwhelmed by work and/or social circumstances and is unable to cope due to high levels of stress and emotional and physical exhaustion. Experiencing burnout can cause a person to feel unmotivated and extremely unhappy. High stress levels in all areas of life can reduce productivity and interrupt normal work, family and social relationships. It may also have an adverse affect on one’s health. It may be caused by lack of control, job boredom or monotony, extreme pressure to meet constant and excessive demands and lack of recognition.

Who is at Risk?
People who are dealing with a stressful environment on a daily basis, who must fulfill certain objectives and are under pressure due to time, financial or employer constraints. These people could be executive high flyers or even carers for the disabled. Any job or environment that can become monotonous and make a person feel like their achievements go unrecognized has the potential to increase the likelihood of burnout.

Signs of Burnout
Early signs of burnout relate closely to high levels of stress and the mental rather than physical state of a person’s well-being. Feelings like frustration, hopelessness, irritability and lack of emotional energy are all early signs. As they are also feelings experienced with depression fast diagnosis and early prevention of further burnout is required to.

Introduce positive change. As the state of burnout progresses physical symptoms such as fatigue, insomnia, weight gain or weight loss may manifest and a person is at higher risk of developing extreme mental depression and even other emotional problems, for example, anxiety attacks.

Prevention
Burnout can be prevented or alleviated with the same methods used to combat stress. Having good physical health and maintaining strong relationships within the family and workplace will ensure a foundation of support, if and when it’s needed. A person that can socialize and connect with like-minded people is able to relax easier and counter stress more effectively. To prevent burnout a person may request different duties in a monotonous job or indeed make a career change altogether. A clear expectation of work duties may help as will a clean and relaxed office environment. If the first signs of burnout are being experienced, a person may reassess personal and private life goals and realise and set limits on their capabilities in certain situations. Taking regular breaks may help reduce stress in a highly demanding work environment. Once burnout has occurred, positive changes may be undertaken through counselling, doctor’s advice and help from family and friends. The best defense against burnout is for a person to remain connected with others and practice good communication within work, social and family circles.

buy steroids in germany

0 comments:

What You Really Need to Know About Cholesterol

cholesterol
When a person eats fatty foods, those fats are ultimately absorbed by the small intestine and sent along to the liver, which breaks them down into various other fat products, but mostly cholesterol. The liver then transforms 80 percent of this cholesterol into cholic acid (bile), which is necessary to digest fats and proteins.

The rest of the cholesterol is then used as building blocks for all cell membrane construction, all hormone fabrication, stem cells and the insulation of nerves cells in the brain. Pretty important stuff. In fact, huge amounts of cholesterol are required for these functions. Remember that the brain is 80 percent fats by weight, mostly cholesterol and omega-3.

Cholesterol's Bad Rap

Then why does cholesterol have such a bad reputation? It’s because there are two types of cholesterol. The first is high density lipid (HDL) cholesterol, which is beneficial and does not harm blood vessels. In fact it protects them because it actually collects some of the negative cholesterol and carries it back to the liver for removal.

The negative cholesterol is low density lipid (LDL) and it acts as a free radical in the body. A free radical has nothing to do with the 1960s. It is an unstable protein molecule that can do great damage to the body and cells. The damage done by LDL cholesterol attracts inflammation which obstructs blood vessels and allows excess cholesterol in the circulation to be deposited in the damaged vessel walls. It is when clots form on these blockages in the blood vessels that flow is restricted and heart attacks or strokes may result. That is the cause of cholesterol's negative reputation.

Arteriosclerosis

This inflammation and blockage of the blood vessels is called arteriosclerosis. (By the way, calcium is also deposited in the vessels when inflamed and in this case is as dangerous as cholesterol.) And since it can have such dangerous consequences for human health it's worth understanding more clearly how it develops.

The lining of blood vessels can be damaged by many factors, not just cholesterol. The inflammation caused by the free radicals actually tries to repair damage, but the swelling it causes allows cholesterol and calcium to deposit. There has to be damage for cholesterol to stick and cause and arteriosclerosis.

So it's not so much LDL cholesterol, but the damage done by free radicals that are created by LDL cholesterol, that eventually lead to heart attacks and strokes. The blockages in the blood vessels cause protrusions, which lead to clots, which deprive the heart or brain of oxygen.

Guarding against arteriosclerosis

  • Exercise is the best cure. It can actually reverse arteriosclerosis.
  • Maintain a high intake of potassium. Bananas, orange juice, tomato paste and potatoes are among the foods high in potassium, or take a supplement.
  • No smoking.
  • Eat a balanced diet, low on toxins, fats and meat. Also avoid high amounts of sugars, starches and prepared foods.
  • Lower intake of saturated fat, but don’t cut it out entirely.

buying steroids online

0 comments: